Even when we carefully examine a patient’s family history, past and current growth measurements, and a set of predetermined norms to predict their future craniofacial growth, it is no secret that many clinicians still encounter unexpected growth patterns in patients with challenging-to-treat malocclusions. This can especially be true when treating phenotypes that have a familial/genetic contribution, such as Class III malocclusion. The genes encoding Insulin-Like Growth Factor 1 (IGF1), Growth Hormone Receptor (GHR), and Aromatase are important growth-related genes that can influence both facial and overall body growth, especially during the pubertal growth spurt. This lecture will provide new insights into how specific genetic variations in growth-related genes may be associated with different degrees of normal facial growth, and how a panel of markers may one day aid in improved growth predictions and orthodontic treatment planning.
Discuss the basis of patient-specific growth predictions (i.e. more precise estimates of facial growth).
Describe how genetic variation in a number of growth-related genes may contribute to the shape and size of facial features.
Recognize the hurdles that we face when applying genetic findings to clinical care and outcomes.